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Massachusetts Appellate Procedure
Rule 18: Appendix to the Briefs

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(a) Duty of Appellant to Prepare and File; Content of Appendix; Time for Filing; Number of Copies. The appellant shall prepare and file an appendix to the briefs. In civil cases, the appendix shall contain: (1) the relevant docket entries in the proceedings below; (2) any relevant portions of the pleadings, charge, findings, or opinion; (3) the judgment, order, or decision in question; and (4) any other parts of the record to which the parties wish to direct the particular attention of the court. Except where they have independent relevance, memoranda of law in the lower court should not be included in the appendix.

In criminal cases, the appendix need not contain relevant portions of the transcript, but shall contain: (1) the relevant docket entries in the proceedings below; (2) a copy of the complaint or indictment; and (3) any paper filed in the case relating to an issue which is to be argued on appeal. Any party in a criminal case may include in an appendix to his brief any other parts of the record to which he wishes to direct the particular attention of the court.

The appendix shall include any order of impoundment or confidentiality from the lower court. The fact that parts of the record are not included in the appendix shall not prevent the parties or the court from relying on such parts, provided that the court may decline to permit the parties to refer to portions of the record omitted from the appendix, unless leave be granted prior to argument.

Unless filing is to be deferred pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (c) of this rule, any appendix shall be filed and served with the brief. If separately bound, the same number of copies of the appendix shall be filed with the clerk as required by Rule 19(b) for the filing of the brief, and two shall be served on counsel for each party separately represented, unless the court shall by rule or order direct the filing or service of a lesser number and except as otherwise provided in subdivision (e) of this rule.

(b) Determination of Contents of Appendix in Civil Cases; Cost of Producing. The parties are encouraged to agree as to the contents of the appendix. In the absence of agreement, the appellant shall, not later than ten days after the date on which the clerk notifies the parties that the record has been assembled, serve on the appellee a designation of the parts of the record which he intends to include in the appendix and a statement of the issues which he intends to present for review. If the appellee deems it necessary to direct the particular attention of the court to parts of the record not designated by the appellant, he shall, within ten days after receipt of the designation, serve upon the appellant a designation of those parts. The parties shall not engage in unnecessary designation and may refer to parts of the record not included in the appendix if permitted by the appellate court or a single justice pursuant to the provisions of Rule 18(a) or 18(f). However, this does not affect the responsibility of the parties to include materials necessary to their appeal, including exhibits, in the appendix.

Where a party designates as part of the record any matter that has been impounded or has been made confidential by statute, rule, or order, the designation shall so state.

Unless the parties otherwise agree, the cost of producing the appendix shall initially be paid by the appellant, but if the appellant considers that parts of the record designated by the appellee for inclusion are unnecessary for the determination of the issues presented he may so advise the appellee and the appellee shall advance the cost of including such parts. In the event of a dispute as to the parts to be included or the advance required to include them, the matter shall be settled by the lower court on motion and notice. The cost of producing the appendix shall be taxed as costs in the case, but if either party shall cause matters to be included in the appendix unnecessarily the court may impose the cost of producing such parts on the party.

(c) Alternative Method of Designating Contents of the Appendix in Civil Cases; How References to the Record May Be Made in the Briefs When Alternative Method Is Used. In civil cases, if the appellant shall so elect - with leave of the appellate court or a single justice - preparation of the appendix may be deferred until after the briefs have been filed and the appendix may be filed twenty-one days after service of the brief of the appellee. Notice of the election by the appellant to defer preparation of the appendix shall be filed and served by him within ten days after the date on which the clerk notifies the parties that the record has been assembled. If the preparation and filing of the appendix is thus deferred, the provisions of subdivision (b) of this Rule 18 shall apply, except that the designations referred to therein shall be made by each party at the time his brief is served, and a statement of the issues presented shall be unnecessary.

If the deferred appendix authorized by this subdivision is employed, references in the briefs to the record may be to the pages of the parts of the record involved, in which event the original paging of each part of the record shall be indicated in the appendix by placing in brackets the number of each page at the place in the appendix where that page begins. Or if a party desires to refer in his brief directly to pages of the appendix, he may serve and file typewritten or page-proof copies of his brief within the time required by Rule 19(a), with appropriate references to the pages of the parts of the record involved. In that event, within fourteen days after the appendix is filed he shall serve and file copies of the brief in the form prescribed by Rule 20(a) containing references to the pages of the appendix in place of or in addition to the initial references to the pages of the parts of the record involved. No other changes may be made in the brief as initially served and filed, except that typographical errors may be corrected.

(d) Arrangement of the Appendix. The pages of the appendix shall be consecutively numbered and the parts of the record which are reproduced therein shall be set out in chronological order. The appendix shall commence with a chronologically ordered list of the parts of the record which it contains, with references to the pages of the appendix at which each part begins. When an appendix relates to two or more cases or to more than two parties, the appendix shall indicate the case to which each paper belongs and by whom it was filed. Unless the party filing the appendix reproduces the entire transcript of testimony, he shall, preceding each portion of testimony transcript reproduced, insert a concise statement identifying:

(1) the witness whose testimony is being reproduced;

(2) the party originally calling him;

(3) the party questioning him; and

(4) the classification of his examination (direct, cross, or other).

When matter contained in the reporter's transcript of proceedings is set out in the appendix, the page number of the original transcript at which such matter may be found may be indicated in brackets immediately before the matter which is set out, unless it already appears on the matter as set out. Omissions in the text of papers or of the transcript must be indicated by asterisks. Immaterial formal matters (captions, subscriptions, acknowledgments, etc.) may be omitted. A question and its answer may be contained in a single paragraph.

(e) Reproduction of Exhibits and Transcripts. Exhibits and transcripts or portions thereof in civil cases, designated for inclusion in the appendix, may be contained in separate volumes, suitable indexed.

(1) Appeals Court. On appeals to the Appeals Court, five copies of the exhibits volume or volumes, and two copies of the transcript volume or volumes, shall be filed with the appendix and one copy of each shall be served on counsel for each party separately represented.

(2) Supreme Judicial Court. On appeal to the Supreme Judicial Court, and on further appellate review, five copies of the exhibits volume or volumes and five copies of the transcript volume or volumes shall be filed with the appendix and one copy of each shall be served on counsel for each party separately represented.

(3) Appeals transferred to the Supreme Judicial Court from the Appeals Court. In any appeal transferred to the full Supreme Judicial Court, in which copies of the exhibits and transcripts have already been filed in the Appeals Court pursuant to this rule three additional copies of the transcript volume or volumes shall be promptly filed with the clerk of the Supreme Judicial Court, unless the court by order in a particular case shall direct a lesser or greater number.

(f) Hearing of Appeals on the Original Record Without the Necessity of an Appendix. On motion, the appellate court or a single justice may, in specific cases, dispense with the requirement of an appendix and permit appeals to be heard in whole or in part on the original record, with such copies of the record, or relevant parts thereof, as the court may require.

(g) Reproduction of Impounded Materials. If the entire case has been impounded, the cover of the appendix shall clearly indicate that the appendix is impounded. If the entire case has not been impounded, a separate appendix volume shall be filed containing the impounded material and the cover thereof shall clearly indicate that it contains impounded material.

Amended effective February 24, 1975, amended June 2, 1976, effective July 1, 1976; May 15, 1979, effective July 1, 1979; April 25, 1984, effective July 1, 1984; November 17, 1986, effective January 1, 1987, amended effective February 1, 1991; May 1, 1994; amended June 11, 1997, effective July 1, 1997; October 1, 1998, effective November 2, 1998.